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高考英语阅读理解8种题型及解题思路

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2019年05月30日

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  1.细节事实题

  标志:①题干中明确提到时间、地点、人物等细节信息;

  ②针对文章中的一句或几句发问;

  ③题干和选项之间是因果关系。

  例1.(2005年高考英语福建卷阅读理解A篇)Clearly, he was a writer who knew how to interest contemporary children. Recognizing that, the American Library Association in 2002 honored Paul Zindel with the Margaret A. Edwards Prize for his lifetime achievements, and later that same year he was presented with the ALAN Prize for his contributions to Young Adult Literature.

  58.When did Paul Zindel win the ALAN Prize?

  A.In 2002. B.In 2003.

  C.Between 1967 and 1992.

  D.Between 2002 and 2003.

  解析:细节事实题正确选项特点是: 一般可以在文章中直接或间接找到答案,但是不可能与阅读材料一模一样,而是用不同的词语或句型表达相同的意思题干+正确选项的信息等于或者约等于原文中某句的信息值。做题的关键在于返回原文,返回原文的方?#25509;校孩?#26681;据题干中的时间、地点、人物返回原文;

  ②根据出题顺序返回原文(60%的?#32423;?;

  ③根据题干中的重点词或其同义词返回原文(如名词、动词、形容词,70%的?#32423;?;

  在本题中,迷惑人的手段在于用题干中的win来代替文中的was presented with,考生可以根据题干中的重点词Zindel和ALAN Prize返回原文,在原文中,可以看出在2002年Zindel被授予Margaret A奖项,紧?#24188;?#21448;说,在同一年,他被授予了ALAN Prize奖项,由此推理,正确答案是A. In 2002。即,Zindel 获得ALAN Prize 奖项的时间是在2002年。

  2.词汇题

  标志:在题干中明确指出原文中某处的单词或?#39318;椋?#35201;求辨别其意思

  例2.(2005年高考英语湖南卷阅读理解B篇)Charlotte's tale was inspired by the girls' coin collection. "We've collected foreign coins for years – since our families went on holiday to Tenerife." she explains. "That was before the Euro, so we put pesetas in." Lauren continues: "I find a coin in the road, go to get it and get run over. I'm in hospital and then I die." Charlotte adds: "Or she might not die. I haven't decided yet."

  60. The underlined word "pesetas" in Paragraph 2 is a kind of _____.

  A. story B. collection

  C. inspiration D. foreign coin

  解析:做题的关键在于:该单?#26102;?#36523;并不重要,重要的是该单?#23454;?#19978;下, 如果该单词认识,并不超出大纲,则其字面意思必然不是正确答?#31119;?#20854;正确答案是根据上下文推测的一个更加深刻的含义。要找到正确的词义,关键在于在上下文中寻找同词性的词或?#39318;欏?#22914;在本题中,根据句式我们可以判断pesetas是一个名词,在pesetas的上下文附近出现了的名词有coin,Euro(欧元),road等,根据I find a coin in the road(?#20197;?#36335;上发现埋着一枚硬币),可以知道埋在地下的是pesetas是硬币之类的东西,所以正确答案是D.foreign coin.

  3.句子理解题

  标志:在题干中明确指出原文中的一句话,要求理解其意思

  例3.(2005年高考英语天津卷阅读理解C篇)Tim pulled on a sweater and put some apples into his schoolbag. It was too early for breakfast. He' d eat after he' d been through the cave, sitting on the rocks and staring at the sea.

  He wished he had a proper pack. His schoolbag would have to do. What else? Sandwiches-but his mother might wake up if he started pulling out bread for sandwiches, she' d want to know why he had to leave so early. He settled for some biscuits, and left a note stuck to the table: Gone to Michael' s. Back tonight, Tim.

  44. "He settled for some biscuits” ( in Paragraph 3 ) means that Tim_______.

  A. had to leave the biscuits on the table

  B. liked biscuits better than sandwiches

  C. had to take biscuits instead of sandwiches

  D. could only find some biscuits in the kitchen

  解析:做题的关键在于:返回原文对出题的句子进行上下文分析,要精确理解其涵义; 正确答案与原句之间是一种同义关系,可以通过推理得出正确答案。在本题中,在句子He settled for some biscuits的上文中说but his mother might wake up if he started pulling out bread for sandwiches, she' d want to know why he had to leave so early.(如果他拿面包当三明治吃,他的妈妈就会醒来问他为什么这么早就离家。)所以,为了不惊醒他妈妈,他settled for some biscuits(只好拿一些饼干了),所以,正确的答案只能是C. had to take biscuits instead of sandwiches 。了

  4.指代题

  标志:在题干中明确指出原文中某处的指代词,要求辨别其指代关系。常考的指代词?#26657;篿t,that ,this,one,these,those等

  例4.(2005年高考英语湖?#26412;?#38405;读理解C篇)There are also rules which deal with the standard of services you get from ,say ,travel agents ,shoe repairers ,hairdressers and builders. These tell you what you should expect from any service you pay for.

  64.The underlined word “these” in Paragraph 2 refers to “ ”.

  A.the services B.the workers

  C.the goods D.the rules

  解析:首?#30830;?#22238;原文定位该指代词,并且90%向上、10%向下搜索其指代的词、?#39318;?#25110;句子。然后在四个选项中?#39029;?#19982;所找到的词、?#39318;?#25110;句子意思*接近的一个作为答案。在本题中,我们可以看到原文中these之前的名词有rules,services,travel agents,shoe repairers, hairdressers, builders等名词,根据These tell you what you should expect from any service you pay for.(这些使你明白你所得到的付费服务应该达到怎样的水平)的意思,可以知道正确的答案是D. the rules(制度) 。因为只有制度才能约束服务行为,使服务行为得到保障。

  5.推理题

  标志?#21644;?#29702;题一般含有关键词infer,imply等。

  例5.(2005年高考英语山东卷阅读理解B篇) Under a Canadian government program for multiculturalism, the three students have received two thousand dollars with which they will do a study to find out whether Toronto’s immigrant businessmen would support an open-air market. They hope the merchants will support the plan strongly. “A study done earlier this year showed that 90 percent of shoppers would be in favor of it,” Salvatori said. “At first it would be an experiment. But we think it will prove to be good business for the merchants, as well as tourist attraction.”

  64.It can be inferred from the text that the Canadian government supports ______.

  A. the protection of different cultures

  B. the plan of an open-air market

  C. the request of merchants

  D. the attitude of shoppers

  解析?#21644;?#29702;题干扰项的特点为只是原文的简单?#35789;?而非推断出来的结论,把直接表达当作间接推理; 或者?#27492;?#20174;原文推断出来的结论,然而实际上与原文不符,如因果倒手段变目的等,本题中的B. the plan of an open-air market C. the request of merchants D. the attitude of shoppers就是根据这些原理设计出来的。做题时可以寻找四个选项中三错一对的关系。 如果四个选项中有两个或两个以上的选项都是成立的推理步骤,那么与原文意思*接近、所用推理*少的选项即是正确答案。本题中?#39029;?#27491;确答案的关键是读懂Under a Canadian government program for multiculturalism,the three students have received two thousand dollars(从加拿大政府一个多元文化项目中,三个学生获取了2000美圆的基金),这个句子,试想想,如果加拿大政府不支持对不同文化的保护,能设多元文化保护项目吗?能拨出2000美金给学生们从事多元文化的研究吗?所以,答案 A. the protection of different cultures (对多元文化的保护)自然就是正确答案了。

  6.态度题

  标志:考查态度题中的题干一般都含有 according to the writer,attitude,believe ,consider,regard等词和短语。

  例6.(2004 年高考英语全国卷阅读理解C篇)When someone has deeply hurt you, it can be extremely difficult to let go of your anger. But forgiveness is possible - and it can be surprisingly helpful to your physical and mental health. In-deed, research has shown that people who forgive report more energy, better appetite (胃口) and better sleep patterns. "People who forgive show less anger and more hopefulness," says Dr. Freder-ic Luskin, who wrote the book Forgive for Good. " So it can help save on the wear and tear on .Our system allow people to feel more energetic."

  66. According to the writer, what is the right way to calm down after being hurt?

  A. Try to figure out why you get hurt.

  B. Write a letter to the person who hurt you.

  C. Persuade yourself to accept what others have done to you.

  D. Think about pleasant things and forget about the hurt.

  解析: 作者态度只分为三大类:支持、赞同、乐观;客观、中立;反对、批评、怀疑、悲观;除此之外,没有其他的作者态度。 识别作者态度有以?#36335;?#27861;:找文中带有感情色?#23454;?#21517;次、动词、形容词、副词;根据作者举的例子判断等。在涉及本题的文段中,反复出现的此是forgive 和forgiveness(宽容),因此,不?#38597;?#26029;,作者对于受到伤害后解脱的态度是D. Think about pleasant things and forget about the hurt.(多去想想愉快的事情,忘掉别人?#38405;?#30340;伤害)。

  7.判断题

  标志:which of the following statement is not ture/correct/mentioned? All of the following statements are ture /correct/mentioned except?

  例7.(2005年高考英语天津卷阅读理解C篇)The sandhills still breathed heat from yesterday' s sun, though the top of the sand was cool. He ran down to the beach impatiently, but there was no one, just dry sand dancing in the early wind and seabirds marching up and down watching the waves.

  The light changed suddenly. The first rays of sunlight stretched (?#30001;? across the sea. Thesun was pushing its way over the edge of the world.

  Over the first rocks, along to the point. Tim glanced back. The beach was still empty. The sun sailed higher in the sky.

  He could see the cave now, even darker in the morning light. The sand turned silver than dark gold as the water flowed away from it. He had to force himself to go closer. Why was it so much more mysterious (神秘的) now? But it would be silly to go back now after so much trouble. He needn't go in all the way...

  46. Which of the following statements is TRUE according to the story?

  A. The sea looked like a piece of gold.

  B. Seabirds flew away when Tim arrived.

  C. Tim was the only person on the beach.

  D. The sky got dark as Tim reached the cave.

  解析:做这样的题首先应判断是三错一对还是三对一错,所谓“对”是指符?#26174;?#25991;,所谓“错”是指和原文有矛盾,或原文未提及;?#24188;?#27599;一个选项?#21152;?#21147;争返回原文,不能通过印象进?#20449;?#26029;。在本题的四个答案中,A. The sea looked like a piece of gold.(大海看起来象一块金字),文中没有提及,文中涉及金子(gold)的句子是The sand turned silver than dark gold as the water flowed away from it.(海水退去之后,?#31243;?#30340;颜色变得比黑金更暗),如果不仔细阅读推敲,考生很容易凭印象误选这个答案。答案B. Seabirds flew away when Tim arrived.(迪姆到达时,海鸟都飞走了)与原文中的seabirds were marching up and down watching the waves.(海鸟上?#36335;上瑁?#20463;瞰海浪)相矛盾。答案D. The sky got dark as Tim reached the cave.(当迪姆到达洞穴时,天色暗下来了)与The sun sailed higher in the sky.(太阳已经高高地升上了天空)相矛盾。原文中的but there was no one(一个人都没有), The beach was still empty(海滩上仍然不见人踪)倒是和答案 C. Tim was the only person on the beach.互相印证,所以正确答案可以判定为C.

  8.主旨题

  标志:best title main idea main problem conclusion conclude

  例8.(2005年高考英语全国卷阅读理解B篇)MONTREAL (Reuters) – Crossing the US-Canada border(边界)to go to church on a Sunday cost a US citizen $10,000 for breaking Washington’s strict new security(安全)rules.

  The expensive trip to church was a surprise for Richard Albert, who lives right on the Canadian border. Like the other half-dozen people of Township 15, crossing the border is a daily occurrence for Albert. The nearby Quebec village of St. Pamphile is where they shop, eat and go to church.

  There are many such situations in these areas along the largely unguarded 5,530-mile border between Canada and the US-which in some cases actually runs down the middle of streets or through buildings.

  As a result, Albert says he did not expect any problems three weeks ago when he returned home to the US after attending church in Canada, as usual. The US customs(海关)station in this area is closed on Sundays, so be just drove around the locked gate, as he had done every weekend since the gate appeared last May, following a tightening of border security. Two days later. Albert was told to go to the customs office, where an officer told him be had been caught on carnera crossing the border illegally(非法).

  Ottawa has given out special passes to some 300 US citizens in that area so they can enter the country when Canadian customs stations are closed, but the US stopped a similar program last May. That forces the people to a 200-mile detour along hilly roads to get home through another border checkpoint.

  Albert has requested that the customs office change their decisions on the fine, but he has not attended a Sunday church since. “I feel like I’m living in a prison,” he said.

  62.What would be the best title for the text?

  A.A Cross-country Trip

  B.A Special Border Pass

  C.An Unguarded Border

  D.An Expensive Church Visit

  解析:要利用宏观阅读?#35760;?#20570;主旨题,既要特别小心首段、末段陷阱,又要重视首段、末段提供的重要信息。具体操作的时候,要注意依据选项、快速与原文核对。在本文中,第一段就开宗明义地点明了文章的主题,因为第一?#38382;?#36825;样叙述的:MONTREAL (Reuters) – Crossing the US-Canada border(边界)to go to church on a Sunday cost a US citizen $10,000 for breaking Washington’s strict new security(安全)rules.(?#21830;?#21033;尔(路?#24178;?#28040;息)—— 一位美国公民因为跨越美加边界去参加一个周日礼拜活动,违反了华盛顿?#32454;?#30340;新安全制度,并为此付出了一万美金的代价)。

  所以,我们根据第一段可以轻松选出正确答案D.An Expensive Church Visit


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