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第19章 主 语 19.4 there引导的句子

所属教程:张道真实用英语语法

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2019年07月08日

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19.4 there引导的句子

19.4.1 there引导的句子

1) there引导的是一种特殊的句子,here放在句首好似主语,但真正的主语在后面,表示“有??#20445;?

There is a rainbow in the sky. 天上有一道彩虹。

这里的there不同于一般的副词there,它读作/e?/,而平常的副词则读作/ee?/。

there常和后面的动词be或助动词构成紧缩形式,仿佛它是主语似的:

There's no problem. 没问题。

There's a car coming. 有一辆车开过来了。

There's been a gentleman here asking to see you. 这儿有位先生要见你。

Sooner or later there'll be a big row. 迟早会大吵一场。

在构成问句时,there也起主语的作用,但真正的主语在后面:

Are there many parks in the city? 城里公园多吗?

Is there a car-park nearby? 附近有停车场吗?

How many new words are there in the text? 这篇课文有多少生词?

2) 通常动词和主语保持一致:

There's a television in the sitting-room. 客厅里有一台电视机。

There're six chairs round the table. 桌子周围有六把椅子。

There're a number of swans on the lake. 湖上有许多天鹅。

如果有两个或更多主语时,动词一般和最近的一个保持一致:

There was a sofa and two armchairs. 有一张长沙发和两张小沙发。

There is a boy and two girls dancing on the meadow. 草坪上有一个男孩和两个女孩在跳舞。

有时?#37096;珊退?#26377;主语保持一致:

There were one or two chaps there. 那儿有一两个人。

In addition to her, there were Mr. and Mrs. Delby. 除了她,还有戴尔比夫妇。

19.4.2 there+动词be

1) there引导的句子大部分都以be作谓语动词,可用于各种时态:

Where there's a will, there is a way.(谚)有志者事竟成。

There was little change in him. 他没有什么变化。

There has been no rain today. 今天没下雨。

There'll be a concert in the park tonight. 今晚公园里有一场音乐会。

可有各种灵活的译法,表示发生某事,这时不宜译作“??#20445;?

There was thunder in the air. 天上在打雷。

Then there would be a plebiscite. 然后将举行公民投票。

I hope there will be a change in the weather. 我希望天气能变一变。

There was no wind that night. 那天夜里没刮风。

2) 在主语后面有时有修饰语:

There're ten people coming to dinner. 有十个人来吃晚饭。

There're a lot of difficulties facing us. 我们面前有很多困?#36873;?

There were many things to be done. 有许多事情需要做。

What was there to be afraid of ? 有什么可害怕的?

There are dozens of reasons why I must leave. 我有种种必须离职的理由。

3) there可和to be或being一道用:

You wouldn't want there to be another world war. 你不会希望再发生一?#38382;?#30028;大战吧。

Is it possible for there to be any more trouble? 还可能有更多的麻烦吗?

Would you like there to be a meeting to discuss the problem? 你希望开一?#20301;?#26469;?#33268;?#36825;个问题吗?

I expect there to be no argument about this. ?#20197;?#35745;对这一点不会有争议。

I shall prefer there to be no discussion of such things. ?#19994;?#24895;意大家别谈这些事。

There being nothing else to do, we went home. 由于没别的事要做,我们就回家了。

19.4.3 there+复合谓语

1) there后面可跟由情态动词和be构成的复合谓语:

There may be another demonstration tonight. 今晚可能又有一次示威游行。

There must be something wrong with it. 里面准有问题。

There could be no doubt that he was the best novelist alive. 毫无疑问,他是在世的最优秀的小?#23548;搖?

There might still be hope. 可能还有希望。

There ought to be a comma here. 这儿应当有一个逗号。

There shouldn't be any doubt about it. 对此不应有什么怀疑。

2) 谓语?#37096;?#33021;是由不定式构成的复合谓语:

Is there going to be any activity tonight? 今晚有什么活动吗?

There used to be a cinema here. 过去这儿有一?#19994;?#24433;院。

There's sure to be a restaurant around. 附近一定有餐馆。

There are bound to be controversial questions. 准会有些有争议的问题。

There seems to be something the matter with her. 她似乎有些问题。

There appeared to be a war between his heart and his mind. 他的情感和理智之间似乎有一场斗争。

19.4.4 there+不及物动词

1) there后面有时可跟别的动词(通常为不及物动词):

Once upon a time, there lived a fisherman on the island. 很久以前,岛上住着一位渔夫。

There followed a flood of indignation in the newspapers. 随后报纸发出一片愤怒的声音。

There came a knock at the door. 有人敲门。

In 1859,there came about a war between the two countries. 1859年两国间发生了一场战争。

There remained just fifty dollars. 只剩五十美元了。

Hence there has arisen the agrarian question. 因此产生了土地问题。

2) 有时状语放在前头(a)或插在主语和谓语之间(b):

a. At the top of the hill there stands an old temple. 山顶上有一座古庙。

In recent years, there has been produced more food than the country needs. 最近几年生产的粮?#21557;?#36807;了国家的需要。

In the distance there was heard again the lowing of the cattle. 远处又传来牛叫声。

b. One night there flew over the city a little swallow. 有天夜里,一只小燕子从城市上?#31456;?#36807;。

There sprang from the audience a cry of indignation. 听众中突然发出一阵愤怒的吼声。


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